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ruby mining in myanmar

... Myanmar Imperial Jade Company and Myanmar Ruby Enterprise. Scott, "Gazetteer of Upper Burma and the Shan States," Vol. Memorandum on the Metals and Minerals of Upper Burma, G.A. (Photo by Ye Aung Thu/AFP Photo) This photo taken … 7, p. 187, (1900). Myanmar's ruby gems mining - in pictures Sub-title: Burrowing deep underground, thousands of informal miners risk their lives to find gleaming red gems as a law change spurs opportunity in Myanmar’s “land of rubies”. Most of the ruby mining in Myanmar takes place in the nation’s mountainous Mogok area which has mines with large ruby deposits. 15-25, (1905). A chapter of this book on gem deposits is devoted to a description of the ruby mines near Mogok. 82, pp. 5, No. 14, pp. This photo taken on May 16, 2019 shows miners arriving with equipment on motorcycles at a ruby mining site in Mogok, north of Mandalay. 7-12, pp. … The Ruby Mines in Mogok in Burma, E.J. A summary is given of a presentation made by the author on the history and status of the ruby tract around Mogok. Mogok is known to the Burmese as “The Ruby Mines,” and is called “The Valley of the Rubies.” It lies north in the Union of Burma about five hundred miles from Rangoon. 151-228, (1896). A brief description of the ruby and sapphire gem mines near Mo-gat (Mogok) and Kyat-pyan that were five days journey from Ava (near present-day Mandalay). 1897–1904. The author of this book provides a historical account of the Mogok Stone Tract and a detailed description of ruby from Myanmar. Although not as productive as large-scale production, they proved to be more cost-effective and sustainable. A book that presents summaries of the mining operations for various minerals and ores, and includes a chapter on the ruby mines of Burma that describes the history of the area and the mining methods used to locate rubies. An Account of a Map of Koshanpri, F. Hamilton, Edinburgh Philosophical Journal, Vol. Fact Myanmar's Ruby Gems Mining. “Ruby and Sapphire,” R.W. Most gemological authorities expect a medium to medium dark-red color tone in a ruby. Rock Talk – A Mogok Geology Primer, W. Atichat and R.W. There are also lapis lazuli and peridot mines in this area. Field, Canadian Gemmologist, Vol. 43, No. The very best color in Myanmar rubies is sometimes described as “pigeon’s blood.” In central Myanmar, the area of Mong Hsu began producing rubies during the 1990s and rapidly became the world’s main ruby mining area. 6, pp. 1, pp. A similar article was published in two parts in the Lapidary Journal, Vol. 127, No. Ruby is gem-quality red corundum. After the British annexed Burma in 1886, Mogôk’s mines were operated by a foreign enterprise known as The Burma Ruby Mines Company. A historical study of the acquisition of the legendary ruby mines by British investors in the late 1880s. Keller, Gems & Gemology, Vol. These mines were famous for producing about 90 percent of all pigeon blood rubies. Where Rubies are Found, Author unknown, Round the World, Vol. 2, No. 1, pp. Tiffany’s purchased the entire Cowee Valley in the 1890’s, and then two other companies, American Prospecting & Mining Co. and US Ruby Mining Co., also began work hoping to find the source of the extremely high grade rubies and sapphires found within the corundum mines. The Ruby Mines of Burmah, Author unknown, Chambers’s Journal, Vol. This report of a diplomatic mission to the Kingdom of Ava contains a brief description of the ruby and sapphire mines. 2353, pp. However, recent movements by the Myanmar military against the Rohingya ethnic group of Muslims to expel them from the country has turned violent. 2, No. Gem Hunting in Burma, V.B. Some of these have a rich red hue … 61, No. Fitz-Gerald, Technical World Magazine, Vol. Brown and J.W. 90% of the world’s rubies come from Mogok including the much-coveted “pigeon blood” ruby. 708-712, (1929). Calhoun, Engineering and Mining Journal, Vol. 1, No. A Visit to the Gem Districts of Ceylon and Burma, F.D. 7, No. Myanmar’s mining sector is closely linked to its evolving economy and shifting political landscape. Spaulding, Gems & Gemology, Vol. © 2019 The Natural Ruby Company. Mogôk ruby production and trade all but ceased for a time, although large quantities of stones were smuggled out of the country and sold in Thailand. 1003-1025, (2000). George, Burma Gazetteer, Vol. The Ruby Mines of Burma, G.S. The most recently found ruby deposit in Myanmar is in Namya (Namyazeik) located in the northern state of Kachin. Burman Rubies, Author unknown, The Mineral Collector, Vol. Robert Gordon and the Rubies of Mogok: Industrial Capitalism, Imperialism and Technology in Conjunction, J. Walsh, Asian Culture and History, Vol. 12, pp. Ruby Mines District, E.C.S. 9, No. 1, pp. A popular account of a visit to the Mogok Stone Tract in the late 1800s. Turrell, Modern Asian Studies, Vol. Simpson, Transactions of the Mining and Geological Institute of India, Vol. . These two articles are a summary of an American Consular Report on the ruby mines near Mogok. Following the 1885 Third Anglo-Burmese War in which the British conquered and annexed the hitherto independent Upper Burma, in 1886 the British launched a military expedition to "open up" the ruby mines at Mogok and make them available to the British. 1, pp. The list is not comprehensive, but a compilation of the some interesting gemological information that has often been forgotten or overlooked. Ueber das Vorkommen der Rubine in Birma [On the Occurrence of Ruby in Burma], M. Bauer, Neues Jahrbuch für Mineralogie, Geologie und Palaeontologie, No. The exact date when rubies were first discovered in Mogok is unknown. The Burma Ruby Mining Company, Author unknown, The Economist, Vol. Jobbins, R.E. Burmese rubies are associated with. Burmese rubies are associated with quality because of their intense color, perfect quantities of silk, and strong fluorescence . 26, No. 66, pp. 11, No. The most recently found ruby deposit in Myanmar is in Namya (Namyazeik) located in the northern state of Kachin. 6, pp. 3, No. 99, No. Continuing our regional exploration, we now cross borders to explore Ruby Mines in Thailand. 521–525. 3, pp. Natural, untreated Mogok rubies of fine colour can be valued at $80,000 per carat, according to the Myanmar Extractive Industries Transparency Initiative. The Ruby Mines of Upper Burma, Mrs. H.C. Paget, Cornhill Magazine, Vol. Mogok originally was called Thahapainpin, “Pomegranate,” for the fruit growing abundantly in these hills. The very best color in Myanmar rubies is sometimes described as “pigeon’s blood.” In central Myanmar, the area of Mong Hsu began producing rubies during the 1990s and rapidly became the world’s main ruby mining area. Dr. James Shigley is a distinguished research fellow at the Gemological Institute of America in Carlsbad, California. 545-556, (1911). The most recently found ruby deposit in Myanmar is in Namya (Namyazeik) located in the northern state of Kachin. 1-142, (1915). 12, pp. 22, No. These two articles by J.F. Gem Mining in Burma. 66, No. This article presents a detailed description of the geologic setting and ruby mining operations in the Mogok region. This reading list was compiled to give you an opportunity to learn more about the history of ruby mining in Burma. Rubies of Burmese origin have long been considered the finest quality in the world. The list is presented in chronological order to emphasize the development of ideas over time. Jadeite is found in Kachin State, located in the northern part of Myanmar, bordering China. Myanmar is the only source of Jadeite Jade and the only source of Imperial Jadeite in the world. The rubies from Myanmar come from two major sources: the legendary Mogôk Valley–located some 400 miles north of Myanmar’s capital Yangon, and Möng Hsu–located in Myanmar’s Shan State, bordering China, Laos, and Thailand. Myanmar reportedly produces more than 80% of the world’s rubies, but thanks to decades of isolation under the former junta and restrictions on access for foreigners to mining areas like Mogok, the trade remains opaque and mired in controversy. By closing this banner or using this site you agree to our revised Privacy Notice, Terms of Service and Cookie Policy. MOGOK, Myanmar -- When the world hears about Mogok, it usually concerns some hefty ruby unearthed in the region and auctioned for millions of dollars -- … 7-9, (1991) and No. Publication not seen. Rubies from Möng Hsu differ in several key respects from Mogôk stones. 141-163, (1988). Myanmar is the only source of Jadeite Jade and the only source of Imperial Jadeite in the world. More recent publications can often be found in libraries, including the Richard T. Liddicoat Gemological Library. 15, pp. 5-8, (1992). Ruby Mines of Burma, J.L. 4, pp. https://www.thenationalnews.com/lifestyle/luxury/is-the-burmese- The author discusses several different mines were discovered, including the ruby mines near Mogok. 19-26, (1977). “The ruby mines are getting deeper and deeper, so now we must use 20 men for the work that formerly 10 men could do,” said Dr U Kyaw Khine, the director of the Kyaw Win Tun Gem Company. 11, No. 187-190, (1873). Because of this, mining in the Mogok area has become increasingly difficult. This article reviews the occurrence of gem rubies, as well as the history and mining of rubies around Mogok. When the government nationalized the mines in 1969, smuggling became rampant. GIA is a nonprofit 501(c)(3) organization. The Robert Mouawad Campus The Ruby Mines of Burma, G.W. Only in terms of quality Mogok rubies are best. Rubies from Mogok in Myanmar (Burma) have been prized throughout history. All rights reserved. These include Sagyin, Thabeitkyin, Naniazeik, Mogok and, most recently, Möng Hsu. The information was taken from a report by a British diplomat on a mission to the Kingdom of Ava (in central Burma) in 1826-1827. The Mogok Stone Tract has produced spinel, apatite, scapolite, moonstone, zircon, garnet, iolite and amethyst gemstones. The Ruby Mines of Mogok, Burma, D.L. 5, pp. 4, pp. The very best color in Myanmar rubies is sometimes described as “pigeon’s blood.” In central Myanmar, the area of Mong Hsu began producing rubies during the 1990s and rapidly became the world’s main ruby mining area. The article describes the British military advance on the Mogok Stone Tract and provides details on the topography, geology and inhabitants of the region involved in the mining of ruby and other gem minerals. Period of the Burma Ruby Mines Ltd first lease, with a profit shown only during 1895–1896 (Brown, 1927). 139-154 and the Asiatic Quarterly Review, Vol. The Ruby Mines of Burma, Author unknown, Journal of the Royal Society of Arts, Vol. Dans la Vallee des Rubis: Les Gisements de Rubis de Mogok en Myanmar [In the Valley of Rubies: The Ruby Deposits of Mogok in Myanmar], E.J. 94-100, (2011). The color comes from traces of chromium. Kunz (1915) mentions a Burmese legend from the ruby mines: According to this legend, in the first century of our era three eggs were laid by a female naga, or serpent; out of the first was born Pyusawti, a king of Pagan; out of the second came an Emperor of China, and out of the third were emitted the rubies of the Ruby Mines. 125-133, (1913). d’Amato, Journal of the Asiatic Society of Bengal, Vol. 79-82, (1924). 9, No. Most Burmese rubies come from the districts surrounding Mogok and Mong Hsu, regions in the north and north-east of Burma respectively. Hughes, RWH Publishing, Boulder, Colorado, (1997). 2976, pp. Civitello has visited Myanmar several times to study its gemstone mines, particularly the one in Mogok, the renowned “Valley of Rubies” and source of … 12 (Geology and Economic Mineralogy), pp. Official exports of rubies from the country are valued at over $87.4 million while the undocumented exports are possibly more. The red stones from there are prized for their purity and hue. It also reviews efforts made to pacify the countryside and its people. Fact Myanmar's Ruby Gems Mining. Most famous is the Mogok Stone Tract, which has remained the world's … The author reports that 334,535 carats of rubies were exported from the Mogok area to Great Britain in 1907. This differs from the deep deposits in Myanmar, which was traditionally where the world sourced its rubies. Military personnel and their families are also reportedly among the largest licence-holders for mining jade and other 24, No. Myanmar’s Tatmadaw has been launching air strikes in the gold and mining region inside Kachin state’s Tanai township in recent months. Taw Sein Ko, as tol… Wynne, Transactions of the Institute of Mining and Metallurgy, Vol. 3-31, (1957). 111, pp. A summary of a public lecture that provides a description of the topography of the Mogok Stone Tract, the various methods of gem mining used by the local people, and of the ethnic groups that inhabit the area. A Geographical Classification of the Mineral Deposits of Burma, J.C. Brown, Records of the Geological Survey of India, Vol. Mogok residents to receive ruby mining licences. No doubt the first humans to settle the area found rubies and spinels in the rivers and streams. 49, No. The demand for Burmese rubies has existed for centuries. 113-136, (1926). Duarte, Jewelers' Circular Weekly, Vol. 1-8, (1902). 657-658, (1911). A similar report in McGill University Publications, Series 5, No. 38, No. This complex geology consists mainly of metamorphic schist, gneiss and marble (ruby and spinel-bearing) along with igneous intrusions (granite, pegmatite, syenite, leucogranite) and skarn. 23, No. Most Burmese rubies come from the districts surrounding Mogok and Mong Hsu, regions in the north and north-east of Burma respectively. In the 1960s General Ne Win revoked all foreign licenses and for a modest fee locals were free to mine. The Burma Ruby Mines, A. Williams, “The Romance of Mining,” Chap. 11, p. 7, (1899). 812-824, (1901). Der Rubinbergbau Birmas [Burmese ruby mining], G. Eisfelder, Berg- und Huettenmaennische Zeitung, Vol. Streeter, Journal of the Manchester Geographical Society, Vol. This article describes the Mogok area and the occurrence and mining of ruby and sapphire. 7, No. 1-7, (1915). 66, pp. 425-430, (1906). 14, No. 166-167, (1887). Search GIA's library catalog of 57,000 books, 1,800 videos, 700 periodicals, and the renowned Cartier Rare Book Repository and Archive. The area was annexed by the British in 1866, who granted sole rights to mine the area to Burma Ruby Mines Ltd. 261-275, (1888). Rubies and the Ruby Mines of Mogok, G.L. 22, pp. RUBY MINING IN BURMA (MYANMAR) : Corundum has been found in a number of different areas of Burma. A mineralogical description is given of minerals from the ruby occurrences in Burma. While the government has not allowed for foreign investment into jade and ruby mine, with right investment environment Myanmar has the potential to attract large scale foreign participation in the exploration and extraction of metals, ores and industrial minerals, especially copper, tin, tungsten, nickel … In recent years, considerable movement has been made towards democracy in Burma. The Mogok area, along with other parts of the country, came under control of the British in late 1886, when investigations of the geological setting of the ruby occurrence began and gem mining became more organized. The author describes traveling from Mandalay to Mogok, and the methods used there to recover gem ruby from alluvial sediment deposits. 3-6 and No. 99, No. Though the government has not allowed for foreign investment into jade and ruby mine, Myanmar has the potential to attract large scale foreign participation in the exploration and extraction of metals, ores and industrial minerals, especially copper, tin, tungsten, nickel and gold. Particularly fine specimens of spinel have emerged from Myanmar. 2, pp. Mogok is known to the Burmese as “The Ruby Mines,” and is called “The Valley of the Rubies.” It lies north in the Union of Burma about five hundred miles from Rangoon. The Ruby Mines of Burma, G.S. Many nations have imposed strict sanctions on the country since then, and any reversal of the Jade Act seems highly unlikely. The Upper Burma Ruby Regulation of 1887, U.T. A three-part account of gem mining in Burma was prepared by a well-known mineral and gem dealer. 1, No. 22, No. 19, No. 161-175, (1897). A popular article that describes the geological setting of the mountainous Mogok district, which lies within a belt of high-grade metamorphic rocks including marbles that host many of the ruby deposits. A report of a trip to the gem-mining areas of the country is provided by the author. 1, Chap. 8, pp. A historical study of the British conquest of Burma in the late 1880s. There are records of mining Burmese rubies that go back over 5 centuries. The following article is reprinted by kind permission of Gems & Gemology, in which the original appeared, Spring 1957 (Volume IX, Number 1). It comes under the same umbrella as his parent's company, popular Myanmar … The geological setting and ruby mining operations around Mogok are summarized. Gübelin, Lapis, Vol. 6, pp. Where Rubies are Pebbles, F. Thatcher, The World To-Day, Vol. A popular account (including photographs) is given of the ruby mining operations in the vicinity of Mogok. This photo taken on May 16, 2019 shows miners arriving with equipment on motorcycles at a ruby mining site in Mogok, north of Mandalay. 4, pp. 3, pp. 3, pp. 756-761, and the Library Magazine, Vol. 2, pp. 1142-1148, (1908). The Burma Ruby Mines, A. Williams, “The Romance of Mining”, Chap. Small-scale mining continues, but it is slow and expensive, and ruby production throughout the country has gradually declined. 367-373, (1932). 358-366, (1905). Myanmar law allows foreign investors to enter joint ventures with … 297-318, (1927). Among other characteristics, they are usually, In recent years, considerable movement has been made towards democracy in Burma. Burrowing deep underground, thousands of informal miners risk their lives to find gleaming red gems as a law change spurs opportunity in Myanmar's “land of rubies”. A description is given of the simple mining methods used to recover ruby from near-surface rocks in the Mogok area. 58, No. 87-99, (1990). GIA World Headquarters A Short Description of the Mines of Precious Stones in the District of Kyatpyin, in the Kingdom of Ava, P.G. It … 602, pp. 246-250, (1824). 7, p. 187, (1900). The Ruby Mines of Burma, D.H. Howell, Gems & Gemology, Vol. A short report on the operations of the Burma Ruby Mines Ltd. A discussion is presented of Burma as a source of gem materials. Ruby Mining in Burmah, Author unknown, Engineering and Mining Journal, Vol. Do not take Coon Creek Road, Flowers Gap Road, or Ruby Knoll Road.. A brief description of ruby mining around Mogok is presented. The rubies of Myanmar are found in metamorphic rocks. The rubies of Myanmar are found in metamorphic rocks. A short discussion of the ruby mining operations around Mogok is presented. The country accounts for most of global jade and ruby production. These include Sagyin, Thabeitkyin, Naniazeik, Mogok and, most recently, Möng Hsu. The authors summarize the mining of gems at various locations in Myanmar, including the Mogok Stone Tract. The Burma Ruby Mines, A. Williams, “The Romance of Mining,” Chap. Many ruby crystals have dark bluish interiors which turn red when heat treatments are applied. Burrowing deep underground, thousands of informal miners risk their lives to find gleaming red gems as a law change spurs opportunity in Myanmar's “land of rubies”. The Rubies of Burma: A Review of the Mogok Stone Tract, P.C. Burma – The Mineral Utopia, M.L. Halford-Watkins  describe the setting of the Mogok gem mines and the operations used to recover rubies. 2, pp. Historically, gems have been extracted from alluvial fields, limestone caves, open trenches in hillsides, and tunnels in host rock. Higher in value than sapphires or emeralds, and often more valuable than diamonds, the most coveted rubies have traditionally emerged from the ancient Mogok mines in Upper Burma, or Myanmar. 5, pp. Kane and R.C. The authors of this article give the first detailed geological description of the occurrence of rubies and other minerals in Upper Burma. It is situated between high jungle-covered hills. 11, pp. A short description is given of the mining operations around Mogok, and how rubies were bought and sold in the marketplace. 15, No. Sri Lanka . The Ruby Mines, J.G. 410-423 (the latter reprinted in Littell’s Living Age, Vol.67, No. Conquest and Concession: The Case of the Burma Ruby Mines, R.V. The Ruby Mines of Upper Burma, Mrs. H.C. Paget, Cornhill Magazine, Vol. Carlsbad, CA 92008 Ruby Dragon Mining Division is fully committed to having a sustainable mining operation by reducing the environmental footprints; to having a good governance of natural resources in order to establish a long-lasting relationships with the local people; and to work with integrity in making sure that the safety of every staff is the priority on site. 197-238, (1896). 11, No. Add to this the protracted US embargo on goods from Myanmar and it is easy to understand why gem … Translation of one of first reported visits to the mines near Mogok; the original document was written as a letter by an Italian Jesuit missionary sometime before 1833. In Pakistani Kashmir there are vast proven reserves of millions of rubies, worth up to half a billion dollars. 213-227, (1900). Burma: An Important Source of Precious and Semi-precious Stones, A.B. 724, pp. Mogok (Myanmar) (AFP) Burrowing deep underground, thousands of informal miners risk their lives to find gleaming red gems as a law change spurs opportunity in Myanmar's "land of rubies". The articles describes the mining and buying and selling of rubies at Mogok. 216-220, (1887). 173, No. 109, pp. 9, pp. The Great Corundums - Part II: The Pigeon-Blood Rubies of Burma, D.S.M. (Photo by Ye Aung Thu/AFP Photo) This photo taken … 263-272, (1932) and Methods of Ruby Mining in Burma,  The Gemmologist, Vol. Account of Mr. [John] Crawford’s Mission to Ava, Author unknown, Edinburgh New Philosophical Journal, Vol. Gübelin, Journal of Gemmology, Vol. 22, pp. This short report describes the beginning and promising future of the ruby mining company in 1889, followed several years later by the failure to recover enough rubies to pay its operating expenses and the debts and royalties it owed to the Indian government for rights to operate a mining concession. Thailand buys the majority of Myanmar's gems. 29-31, (1904).   The Geology and Gem-stones of the Mogok Stone Tract, Burma, L.A.N. 209-219, (1983). Kammerling, Gems & Gemology, Vol. Stokes, "Mines and Minerals of the British Empire," pp. A two-part article that describes the ruby mining around Mogok based on a visit by the author. 37, No. In the 1990s, the Möng Hsu ruby deposit was developed and became one of the world’s greatest suppliers of commercial-quality rubies. Stones lighter than this are called pink sapphire. A wide view of a ruby mining operation in the Mogok Valley region. Adams and R.P.D. Cowan, Pacific Monthly, Vol. 8, pp. 476-483, (1907). 38, No. Im Tal der Rubin - Die Rubin-Lagerstatten von Mogok in Burma [In the Valley of Rubies – The Ruby Mines of Mogok in Burma], E.J. Natural, untreated Mogok rubies of fine colour can be valued at $80,000 per carat, according to the Myanmar Extractive Industries Transparency Initiative. 280-286). 5345 Armada Drive It is unclear whether the army left much inside the mountains: in the 1990s, the military seized swathes of hillside land and consolidated the mining industry into the hands of a few well-connected elites. Kane, E.J. Myanmar reportedly produces more than 80% of the world’s rubies, but thanks to decades of isolation under the former junta and restrictions on access for foreigners to mining areas like Mogok, the trade remains opaque and mired in controversy. The article presents a description of the marketplace in Mogok where rubies were bought and sold. On the Ruby Mines near Mogok, Burma, R. Gordon, Proceedings of the Royal Geographical Society, Vol. 335–342 and No. 167, pp. 3, pp. 28, No. The Mogok Stone Tract is, however, also an important source of other gemstones such as sapphire, spinel, peridot, spessartine, zircon, topaz and many others. 1-34, (1926), and in the Annual Report of the Smithsonian Institution (for 1926), pp. The author describes the creation of the British control over ruby and gem mining in Mogok and surrounding areas in 1887. The article presents an account of a visit to the mining operations at Mogok, and includes a number of historical photographs of the area. Mogok residents to receive ruby mining licences. 288-289, (1915). 26-31, (1908). 70, No. Adams, Bulletin of the Canadian Institute of Mining and Metallurgy, No. 20, pp. 1, pp. Rubies are also mined in Afghanistan and Pakistan. Although the discovery of rubies in the Mogôk Valley is shrouded in myth, experts believe that the area has been mined for at least a millennium. 42-58, (1922). The Burma Ruby-Mines, Author unknown, Chambers’s Journal, Vol.   70, No. Mogok-born Aung Kyaw Zin runs SP Gems, a company with five major ruby mines and 200 permanent workers. 4, pp. 22, pp. Rubies from Möng Hsu differ in several key respects from Mogôk stones. Notes on a Visit to the Burma Ruby Mines, R.R. “Gems and Mines of Mogok,” T. Themelis, 352 pp., (2008).

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